(For more information refer to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. - Found on the shelves here: 808.027 GIB)
The numbers in the parenthesis correlate to the numbers in the Handbook.
What is a bibliography?
A list of sources of information on a particular topic or used in a research paper.
(To see how to connect these sources with the information in your paper, please visit our In-Text Citations page.)
Why write a bibliography?
- To give credit to the author for the information that you are using
- When you take credit for someone else’s work - that is plagiarism
- To allow another person to know where you found your information
- As a catalyst for further research
- To show that you used multiple sources
- To show that you used sources of authority and currency
- To allow you to recheck your own work
Important elements in a bibliographic reference:
Author’s name (Many sources list an editor instead. Use the editor’s name followed by "ed." - For example. Flesher, Sharon, ed.)
Title of article or chapter (Place in quotation marks)
Title of publication (Type in italics, unless using a manual typewriter or handwriting then underline)
Place of Publication (If there is more than one place listed, use the first listing)
Date of Publication (Use the most recent date)
Here is a great online tool if you need more help:
Landmark Citation Machine - Offers help in creating citations - On this on-line wizard, you choose the type of citation you want to make then fill in the blanks.
(Author’s name. Title of book. Publication information.) (Use same format for pamphlets.)
A book written by one author (5.6.1):
Covey, Sean. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens: The Ultimate Teenage Success Guide. New York: Fireside, 1998.
A book written by two or three authors (5.6.4): (Notice that the second and subsequent authors are written first name first.)
Burnham, Terry, and Jay Phelan. Mean Genes: From Sex to Money to Food: Taming our Primal Instincts.
New York: Penguin, 2000.
A book written by more than three authors (5.6.4): (You may list the names, or use the words et al. which mean "and others".)
Macintosh, Ray, et al. Nucleus: A Trip Into the Heart of the Matter. Baltimore, MD:
Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
Macintosh, Ray, Jim Al-Khalil, Bjorn Jonson, and Teresa Pena. Nucleus: A Trip Into the Heart of the Matter.
Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
A book by a corporation, organization, association, or foundation (5.6.6):
National Museum of the American Indian: Smithsonian Institute. Stories of the People:
Native American Voices. Washington: Universe, 1997.
A book with no author’s name given: (If there is no author, start with the title.)
Staying Clean: Living Without Drugs. New York: Harper & Row, 1990.
A book with no author but an editor’s name is given (5.6.2):
(The format for the editors is the same as for authors. More than one editor is followed by eds.)
Carlson, Lori M., ed. Cool Salsa: Bilingual Poems on Growing up Latino in the
United States. New York: Henry Holt, 1994.
An article in a well-known reference book such as a general encyclopedia (5.6.8):
(City & publisher not necessary. If arranged alphabetically, omit volume & page numbers. The ed here stands for edition.)
Martin, Richard. "Clothing." World Book Encyclopedia. 2004 ed.
An article in less familiar reference book or one volume of a multivolume book (5.6.8):
(Author. "Title of article." Title of book Editor. Edition. Volume(s) used. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Page numbers - if needed.)
Kellert, Stephen R., ed. "Ecological Economics." Macmillan Encyclopedia of
the Environment. Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan, 1997.
Or if there is continuous pagination
Nagel, Rob, ed. "Luminescence." UXL Encyclopedia of Science. 2nd ed. DetroitL Gale, 2001.
An article originally published under a different title such as a Taking Sides volume (5.6.7): (Rpt. = reprinted in)
Allan, Robert L. "Past Due: The African American Quest for Reparations." The Black Scholar, 28.2 (1998)
Rpt. in Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Race and Ethnicity.
Eds. Raymond D'Angelo and Herbert Douglas. Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2005.
(Author’s name. "Title of article." Title of periodical Date: page(s).)
(If page numbers are not consecutive, write only the first page number followed by a plus sign (+), i.e. 34+.)
A monthly magazine article (5.7.6):
Paul, Annie Murphy. "Am I Normal?" Psychology Today April 2005: 54+.
A monthly magazine article with no author’s name given (5.7.6):
"World’s Smallest (Full) Computers." Popular Science Nov. 2002: 28.
A weekly magazine article (5.7.6):
Smith, Gary. "South Senate Works to Improve School." The Telegraph [Nashua] 20 Mar. 2005: C2.
A newspaper article (5.7.5):
(If name of city is not included in title, enclose it in square brackets after title. Use section letter w /page #)
Poor, Katie. "NHS Earns All A’s." The Telegraph [Nashua] 16 Oct. 2002: 35+.
A scholarly journal with continuous pagination such as CQ Researcher (5.7.1):
(vol. # precedes the year)
Templin, Kate. "Technology Gives Bullies a New Weapon." CQ Researcher 15.5 (2005): 112-113.
Non-Periodical CD-ROMS such as DISCovering Authors:
(Author. "Title of article." Title of CD-ROM. Edition or version if relevant. CD-ROM. CityPublisher, CD-ROM publication date.)
"Angelou, Maya." Discovering Authors. Vers. 3.0. CD-ROM. Detroit: Gale, 1996.
ONLINE RESOURCES (5.9):
(Author. "Title." Relevant information. Date of access .)
Additional important elements in an online citation:
Title of a short portion (poem, article, short story...) is surrounded by quotation marks
Title of personal or professional site in italics
Subscription service Library Name, City, and State precede URL
URL in Angle Brackets < >
For more information concerning documenting online information go to:
A website or database (professional)(5.9.2):
(Title of project or database. Editor. Publication information (version, date, institution. Date of access <URL>)
Animal Rescue League of New Hampshire. 16 Oct. 2002
An article/document within a professional website or information database:
"Library Bill of Rights." ALA. 1 April 2005
An article in an on-line periodical (Magazine/Newspaper/Newswire) (5.9.6):
(Author. "Title." Title of periodical. Publication information (vol.#, date, pages) date of access <URL>.)
Meisler, Stanley. "Surreal World of Salvador Dali." Smithsonian April 2005. 1 April 2005
An article from a library subscription service such as EBSCO (5.9.7):
(Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine/Newspaper Date: Pages. Name of database. Name of the database service. Name of Library, City and State of Library. Date of access <Database URL>.)
"Prom Stories." Teen People March 2005: 72. Mas Ultra - School Edition.
EBSCO. Nashua High School South Lib., Nashua, NH. 1 April 2005
Or CQ Researcher (5.9.7):
"Marijuana Laws: Overview." CQ Researcher 11 Feb. 2005. CQ Researcher Online.
Nashua High School South Lib., Nashua, NH. 1 April 2005 <http://library.cqpress.com>.
An online graphic:
("Name of Graphic." Graphic Type. Copyright holder. Title of site. Date of access <URL>. Use all available information)
"Nashua Panther." JPG. Nashua High School South Library Media Center. 1, April 2005
An on-line government document (5.9.3C):
(vol. # precedes the year)
United States. U.S. Census Bureau. Poverty Thresholds 2004. 28 Jan. 2005.
1 April 2005 <http://www.census.gov/hhes/poverty/threshld/thresh04.html>.
A video (5.8.3):
(Title. Director. Distributor. Year.) (Include other data that is pertinent between the director and distributor.)
Schindler’s List. Dir. Stephen Spielberg. Universal Studios, 1993.
A personal interview (5.8.7):
(Name of person interviewed. Type of interview. Date.)
Anderson, Scott. Personal interview. 9 Feb. 2005.
Psaledakis, Sue. Telephone interview. 3 Mar. 2005. Regnell, Nils. Email interview. 3-7 Jan. 2005.
A speech, lecture, or an address:
(Speaker. "Title of presentation." Location, City. Date.)
Woods, Kathryn. "Peace and Social Justice: Sojourner Truth." Rivier College,
Nashua. 18 Feb. 1997.
Need more help?
Check out the OWL: MLA Format web page for a more indepth discussion.