Battle of Leyte Gulf
Daffy Duck - Comando - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-MwiTxTrRy0&feature=related
WORLD WAR II
The United States' policy of going back to isolationism after World War I, produced many effects.
Limitations were placed on immigration. Organized labor, in particular, was in favor of this policy because immigrants were willing to work for lower wagers. In addition, industrialists no longer needed cheap, unskilled labor supplied by immigration due to advances in technology. The quota system was established which limited the number of European and other immigrants to three percent (3%) of the total number of persons of their nationality residing in the United States in 1910. In 1924, the quota factor was reduced from 3 to 2% with the base year 1890. This change discriminated against the Italians, Austrians, Russians and Eastern Southern Europeans In 1929, the base year was changed to 1920 and the number of immigrants reduced to 150,000. The 1924 agreement hurt the Japanese which resented immigration being reduced.
At the same time the United States raised tariffs.
Because of the European economy, the United States reduced the rate on loans from European nations to the United States. The reason for these difficulties was the reparations. In 1921, Germany owed $33 billion. Germany was thus in the midst of a depression. Germany borrowed some money, reparations were reduced, and by 1930 no further payments were made. Europe could not repay the United States because they were not getting paid by Germany. The United States said that the nonpayment of reparations and the nonpayment of loans were not connected and a rift was created between the United States and Europe and Europe and Germany.
In 1933, the United States recognized the Soviet Union.
There began a movement for Philippine independence.
The good neighbor policy began with Latin-America with an increase in trade which was particularly important with the depression and rising dictatorships in Europe. [Hitler-Germany (1933), Mussolini-Italy (1922), Stalin - USSR (1924)] FDR's policy was to oppose U.S. armed intervention in Latin America. Thus began friendlier relations with Latin America.
In 1930, the State Department declared that the Monroe Doctrine would no longer be used to
justify United States intervention in Latin-American domestic affairs. Relations had greatly approved.
On an international scale, the Americans became advisors to the League of Nations on subjects such as epidemics, slavery, and narcotics.
There was an armaments race between England, Japan, and The United States. An agreement was finally made so that warships would be brought to a ratio whereby England and the United States would have 5 warships to Japan's 3. This further angered Japan.
The Kellogg-Briand Act of 1928 attempted to outlaw war.
In 1931, Japan invades Manchuria. Japan's invasions hampered the independence movement of the Philippines.
In 1933, the Nazis came to power in Germany.
Like any war, World War II, did not start with only one or two reasons or at one particular date. There have been some historians who have claimed that World War II was the conclusion of World War I, particularly in Europe. Studying World War II, can be come a bit confusing because it takes place in two theaters with multiple fronts.
Our official entry into World War II, is well-documented. Circumstances between the United States had been rapidly declining. Japanese diplomats were in Washington in early December, yet on Sunday, December 7, 1941, at approximately 7:00 a.m., the Japanese began firing on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, crippling our naval fleet. The United States declared war on Japan and its allies, Germany and Italy, on December 8, 1941. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, called December 7, "a day which will live in infamy." The story behind the attack is the story of the decline of relations between two allies--the United States and Japan.
Japan opened its ports to the west around 1850. Before that it was isolated. Japanese industrialization took place between 1880 and 1920. Western domination began during 1850 to1905 with unequal treaties. It was not until 1894, that Japan gained admittance to the "Industrial Club" in China. Throughout this period, Japan learned the necessity for Gunboat Diplomacy and need for Industrialization. They also wanted to emulate Western exploitation. In order to do this they had to industrialize and build a strong military. Japan believed themselves to be a superior race and had a strong sense of nationalism. Furthermore, they began to nationalize strategic industries. They placed a high tax on peasants and had severe domestic exploitation. Japan needed foreign markets to expand because there were no markets at home. The military was empowered by industry.
Sino-Japanese War 1894 - 1895
Russo-Japanese War 1904 - 1905
The Russo-Japanese War was the first war where the Japanese beat a western power. The result was a repeal of unequal treaties.
Japan had no empathy with its Asian neighbors. It firmly believed in Social Darwinism and had contempt for weaker countries. Instead, it wanted to exploit those neighbors.
Japan was insulted by other Industrial members who still considered it to be a "junior" member. It was further insulted when the United States placed immigration restrictions on it in the 1920' s, and by the Washington Conference which agreed that the balance of naval power should be held at a ratio of 5:5:3 with The United States:England:Japan.
The Japanese were accepted as a policeman for western interests in China--combating nationalism and anti-foreign sentiment in China. During the 1920's Sun Yut Sen was the leader of the Chinese national movement. During the 1930's and 40's it was Chiang Kai Shek. (Mao Tse Tung would take over power from Chiang Kai Shek after World War II.)
The Chinese wanted tariff autonomy, the Repeal of Extra territory Treaties (foreigners not subject to foreign jurisdiction) and to regain control of their ports and lands. The United States planned to limit Japanese intervention in China by the use of the military (navy), economic pressures (Japan was the main importer of United States goods and 40% of Japan's exports went to the United States.) Japan needed to expand because of a lack of raw materials.
The world-wide depression in the 1930's created problems for the Japanese industry, too. In September, 1931, the Japanese moved to takeover Manchuria. They attacked the region and established a puppet government. In 1937, Japan began attacking northern China. They did it in order to fight Chinese nationalism and to stabilize Manchuria. In the process, they took over Chinese cities. The United States didn't oppose Japan because of the depression and the US.'s policy of economic recovery through domestic reform and isolationism.
Japan was believed to be playing the role of the western policeman by fighting nationalism. Resources in southeast Asia were more important to western nations than China was to them.
France Indochina (Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos)
The U.S. The Philippines
Great Britain Malaya, Ceylon, Burma and India
Holland East Indies
By the 1930's Southeast Asia provides the United States economy with 90% of its crude rubber, 75% of tin and 9 - 14% of American imports.
Things were heating up in the European Theater too. The Nazis had begun attacking using a new method called "Blitzkrieg" or lightning attacks. These were fast attacks using planes and tanks. Using this method they invaded the following countries (overtaking most of them):
September, 1939 Poland
April, 1940 Denmark and Norway
May, 1940 Belgium, Holland, France, Battle of Britain
June, 1941 Russian invasion
In May of 1940, FDR promises that the United States will stay out of the war, but he commits the United States economy to they ally war effort. This was to protect the concern about American foreign markets and American industrial stimulation. European invasions began to endanger holdings in southeast Asia. The United States became even more involved with the East Indies economy. East Indies exports to the United States
1939 80 million
1941 241 million
These exports were six times greater than those with Japan in 1940 and 17 times greater than Japan in 1941.
This area was also important to the Japanese economy. The East Indies were the second largest supplier of oil to Japan--the United States was the largest supplier.
In 1940, the United States imposed a partial embargo on Japan--they banned the export of aviation gas and cut oil exports and scrap metal exports. The Japanese response was that the Chinese national movement getting bogged down in a quagmire--the Japanese were getting frustrated and desperate. The United States embargoes highlighted Japanese dependence on imports and convinced of the need to establish markets and obtain raw materials--they invaded northern Indochina which stopped Indochina's aid to China and staged further invasions. The United States response was to ban scrap metal and steel exports. Japan got more desperate for its need of alternate sources of raw materials. In July, 1941, Japanese troops invaded Southern Indochina. The United States responded by freezing all the Japanese assets in the United States. They could no longer use funds in the United States to buy oil. FDR did not order a total embargo to Japan, the state department made a mistake and did. FDR stood by the total embargo of United States' oil.
In August, 1941, FDR met with Churchill in Newfoundland in secret and created a joint resolution of war aims--the Atlantic Charter. Through the Open Door Policy the United States would:
Protect freedom of the seas
Establish post-war general security system
Guarantee equal access to world wealth
The British were distrustful of the Open Door Policy because of the United States' size and strength both militarily and industrially. The Open Door policy favors the United States because they are becoming the preeminent world industrial power.
In November, 1941, the United States demanded the immediate withdrawal of Japanese forces in China. The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in order to cripple the United States fleet so as to dominate Southeast Asia. The U. S. did not get involved in the war until it affected vital interests in Southeast Asia. In many ways, World War II was a competition between two capitalistic blocs for World Domination. Roosevelt wanted to change the war to include liberal reforms.
Axis Powers: Germany/Italy/Japan - colonial aggression, military aggression, political domination
United States/Great Britain - Free trade, economic competition, anti-imperialism, anti-communistic.
Britain agreed to the Open Door because of desperation in light of the blitzkrieg. Britain wanted the United States to enter war and create an alliance to defeat the axis.
The allies were anti-Communist because of fear of national movements in countries under guise of communism. The first threat of nationalistic movements, communism on the international level calls for a rejection of western capitalistic domination and exploitation.
The Allies were an uneasy alliance:
Britain - colonial power
United States - Open Door Policy
USSR - Socialism/third world independence.
There was also the threat that by knocking out colonization there would be nationalist movements.
The United States needed a win a battle in the Pacific for morale reasons and strategic reasons. In June of 1942, such a situation presented itself. Trying to protect its territories in the Pacific, including Wake and Midway, the United States put out its remaining fleet. Some U.S. reconnaissance planes found the Japanese fleet and the fleet began to attack the Japanese. The United States overwhelmingly defeated the Japanese. The Japanese anticipated that the United States would track down their ships and then have a follow-up attack. But, the United States was still concerned about Midway and knew that they did not have the equipment for such a chase, so they zigzagged. This maneuver probably saved the Pacific fleet. When they found each other the next day, the United States once again destroyed much of the enemy. Such a victory--6 months after Pearl Harbor--was the victory the United States needed.
Neither Germany nor Japan could afford to fight a war of attrition because the allies had the largest amount of production capability. Hitler had predicted a victory over Russia in 2 to 3 months. By 1943, the war is now a war of attrition and Germany and Japan are on the defensive. In 1943 - 45, the Allies are jockeying to achieve post-war objectives.
January, 1943 - Conference at Casablanca. Demanded the Unconditional Surrender of the enemy instead of an armistice
February, 1943 – Stalingrad. Germans surrendered--330,OOO Germans captured or surrendered--beginning of retreat
February 9, 1943 - Marines recapture Guadalcanal
May 13, 1943 - Defeat of Axis in Africa
July 10, 1943 - Sicily invaded by the United States, British, Canadian and French troops
July 19, 1943 - Rome is attacked--Allies give special care not to damage artifacts
July 25, 1943 - Mussolini is forced to resign
September 3, 1943 - Invasion of mainland Italy
October 13, 1943 - Italy declares war on Germany
November, 1943 - Cairo Conference
December, 1943 - Tehran Conference
- plan of invasion of Europe
- Eisenhower named Supreme Allied Commander
Eisenhower becomes the Supreme Allied Commander of the European Theater
April 22, 1944 - Invasion of New Guinea
June 4, 1944 - Invasion of Rome - push Germans northward
June 6, 1944 - D-Day
. 4,000 invasion ships
. 600 ships
. 10,000 planes, only one shot down . 176,000 Allied troops
June, 1944 - Battle of the Philippine Sea - United States defeats Japan
The Pacific Theater of War was fought primarily by an island hopping campaign. The U.S. wanted to hang on to the islands after the War--even for bases which were needed to protect interests. The British led the campaign in southeast Asia. By the summer of 1944, France is liberated and joins the allies. The Japanese were very nationalistic in their resistance.
July 20, 1944 - Bombing of Hitler's Headquarters by insiders
August 10, 1944 - Retaking of Guam
1944 - Bretton Woods Conference
· . Post-War United Nations.
· . Establish an international world bank
· . establish an International Monetary Fund (established to restructure and rebuild)
Since the United States was giving most of the money, the United States had certain stipulations: no tariffs, no trade barriers, open door policy and a capitalistic system. A second front was started in the European Theater - Africa to Italy. [(US/GB) cut Russia out of the re-establishment ofItaly.] Great Britain and Russia were interested in post-war security. The British were to control Greece and half of Yugoslavia. Russia was to control Romania and Bulgaria.
September 12, 1944 - United States enters Germany
October 20, 1944 - United States returns to the Philippines (MacArthur's promise complete) (BEGINNING OF KAMIKAZE ATTACKS)
November 7, 1944 - Roosevelt re-elected
February 4 - 11, 1945 - Yalta Conference
Final phase of assault
. Russia would get the Kural Islands in exchange for Russian help in invasion of Japan. (Russian’s agreed three months after the defeat of Germany that they would engage in the Pacific Theater)
February 24, 1945 - Philippines recaptured
April 1, 1945 - June 21, 1945 - United States takes Okinawa
April 12, 1945 - President Roosevelt dies; Truman becomes President
April 25, 1945 - United States and Russia meet in Germany
May 8, 1945 - V-E Day
July 17, 1945 - Potsdam Conference. Postwar foreign policy
Defeat of Japan
The atom bomb was used, in part, to block the Soviet influence in the Pacific after the war. Also, the use of the bomb made a statement of United States power.
By the spring of 1945, Japan had very little left in navy and air force and no industrial capacity. They had no raw materials and many factories were under bombardment. March 9-10, 1945, was the United States raid on Tokyo--84,000 civilian casualties. In July, 1945, the United States began firebombing Japanese cities--none as bad as the raid on Tokyo. There was no invasion because of the development of the A-bomb during the Potsdam Conference. Churchill wanted to use the bomb to keep Russia out of Asia. On July 16, the bomb was perfected. On July 21, Stinson receives details of the bomb's potential. Truman, upon learning of the bomb, is less accommodating to Russia. The suggestion that the atom bomb be dropped on an island for world observation was never considered.
Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 (the city had not been firebombed). Eighty thousand (80,000) people initially died; 118,000 eventually died, five years later it was 200,000 deaths. On August 8, the Russians invaded Manchuria--precisely three months after the German defeat. On August 9, the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. The United States failed to assess the Japanese attitude towards the bomb and the Russian invasion. Meanwhile, fire bombing continued on other cities. Sixty-five thousand (65,000) civilians were killed in Nagasaki. On August 14, the Japanese surrendered to MacArthur. The Japanese were allowed to retain their emperor.
The bomb saved American lives during the invasion. It also kept Russia out of Japan and the Pacific. It made the United States a world power--it impressed the world. An invasion of Japan could have resulted in the deaths of 500,000 to 1,000,000 American lives. From March, 1944 to April, 1945 there were 13,749 United States deaths to 310,000 Japanese deaths.
September 2, 1945 - Surrender of Japan aboard the Missouri
292,000 United States Battle Deaths 1941-1945
400,000 Total US deaths (including diseases, car accidents, etc.)
15-20 million Overall Soviet deaths.
Reasons for using the atom bomb were:
At first, the Russians demanded a role in the Japanese occupation, but they had only been in that theater for two days. Russians backed down, increased their influence in Eastern Europe. United States issued General Order #1--US. control of Japanese control in Asia. Japanese only allowed to surrender to allied forces in Asia--not local nationalist movements.
Korea was targeted for the "trusteeship" experiment. The "trustee" experiment was FDR's idea, where a group of four or five nations oversee other nations. The Americans controlled south of the 38th parallel and the Russians controlled north of the parallel. The United States disarmed the Japanese and Korean forces. There were no moves towards trusteeship. The division of Korea was not supported by the Koreans.